Rivalry in sport is a growing area of interest and one that is greatly expanding. People that identify with favorite sports teams typically interact on some level with supporters of opposing or rival teams. Havard, Gray, Gould, Sharp, and Schaffer (2013) defined rivalry “as a fluctuating adversarial relationship existing between two teams, players, or groups of fans, gaining significance through on-field competition, on-field or off-field incidences, proximity, demographic makeup, and/or historical occurrence(s)’ (p.51). Tyler and Cobbs (2015) defined a rival team as, “a highly salient group that poses an acute threat to the identity of the in-group or to in-group members’ ability to make positive comparisons between their group and the out- group” (p. 227).
Researchers have identified antecedents and characteristics of rivalry (Kilduff, Elfenbein, & Staw, 2010; Tyler & Cobbs, 2015), and have studied how the phenomenon influences fan behavior. For example, rivalry can influence the way fans perceive an out-group (Havard et al., 2013; Wann & Grieve, 2005) or sponsor (Dalakas & Meloncon, 2012), and the way they choose to consume the sport product (Havard, Shapiro, & Ridinger, 2017). The application of schadenfreude to sport rivalry, and the identification of Glory Out of Reflected Failure (GORFing) has informed how fans react to a perceive failure by an out-group or rival team (Cikara, Botvinick, & Fiske, 2011; Dalakas & Levin, 2005; Havard, 2014).
Cikara, M., Botninick, M. M., & Fiske, S. T. (2011). Us versus them: Social identity shaped neural responses to intergroup competition and harm. Psychological Science, 22, 306- 313. doi: 10.1177/0956797610397667
Dalakas, V., & Melancon, J. P. (2012). Fan identification, schadenfreude toward hated rivals, and the mediating effects of Importance of Winning Index (IWIN). Journal of Services Marketing, 26, 51-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08876041211199724
Dalakas, V., & Levin, A. M. (2005). The balance theory domino: How sponsorships may elicit negative consumer attitudes. Advances in Consumer Research, 32, 91-97.
Havard, C. T (2014). Glory Out of Reflected Failure: The examination of how rivalry affects sport fans. Sport Management Review, 17, 243-253. doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2013.09.002.
Havard, C. T., Gray, D. P., Gould, J., Sharp, L. A., & Schaffer, J. J. (2013). Development and validation of the Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale (SRFPS). Journal of Sport Behavior, 36, 45-65.
Havard, C. T., Shapiro, S. L., & Ridinger, L. L. (2016). Who’s our rival? Investigating the influence of a new intercollegiate football program on rivalry perceptions. Journal of Sport Behavior, 39, 385-408.
Kilduff, G. J., Elfenbein, H. A., & Staw, B. M. (2010). The psychology of rivalry: A relationally dependent analysis of competition. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 943-969. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2010.54533171
Tyler, B. D., & Cobbs, J. B. (2015). Rival conceptions of rivalry: Why some competitions mean more than others. European Sport Management Quarterly, 15(2), 227-248. doi: 10.1080/16184742.2015.1010558
Wann, D. L., & Grieve, F. G. (2005). Biased evaluations of in-group and out-group spectator behavior at sporting events: The importance of team identification and threats to social identity. Journal of Social Psychology, 145(5), 531-545. doi: 10.3200/SOCP.145.5.531- 546
Other suggested readings:
Angell, R. J., Gorton, M., Bottomley, P., & White, J. (2016). Understanding fans’ responses to the sponsorship of a rival team. European Sport Management Quarterly, 16(2), 190-213. doi:10.1080/16184742.2015.1135975
Ambrose, S. C., & Schnitzlein, N. (2017). What makes for the best rivalries in individual sports and how can marketers capitalize on them? Sport Marketing Quarterly, 26(4), 223-234.
Bee, C., & Dalakas, V. (2013). Rivalries and sponsor affiliation: Examining the effects of social identity and argument strength on responses to sponsorship-related advertising messages. Journal of Marketing Communications, 1-17. doi:10.1080/13527266.2013.828768
Berendt, J., & Uhrich, S. (2016). Enemies with benefits: The dual role of rivalry in shaping sport fans’ identity. European Sport Management Quarterly. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2016.1188842
Berendt, J., & Uhrich, S. (2018). Rivalry and fan aggression: Why acknowledging conflict reduces tension between rival fans and downplaying makes things worse. European Sport Management Quarterly DOI: 10.1080/16184742.2018.1424226
Cikara, M., & Fiske, S. T. (2012). Stereotypes and schadenfreude: Affective and physiological markers of pleasure at outgroup misfortunes. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 63-71. doi: 10.1177/1948550611409245
Cobbs, J., Sparks, D., & Tyler, B. D. (2017). Comparing rivalry effects across professional sports: National Football League fans exhibit most animosity. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 26(4), 235-246.
Dalakas, V., Melancon, J. P., & Sreboth, T. (2015). A qualitative inquiry on schadenfreude by sport fans. Journal of Sport Behavior, 38(2), 161-179.
Havard, C. T., & Reams. L. (2016). Investigating differences in fan rival perceptions between conferences in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 39, 126-146.
Havard, C. T., Wann, D. L., & Grieve, F. G. (2018). Rivalry versus hate: Measuring the influence of promotional titles and logos on fans. Journal of Applied Sport Management.
Havard, C. T., Wann, D. L., & Ryan, T. D. (2013). Investigating the impact of conference realignment on rivalry in intercollegiate athletics. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(4), 224-234.
Havard, C. T., Wann, D. L., & Ryan, T. D. (2017). Reinvestigating the impact of conference realignment on rivalry in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 9(2), 25-36.
Heere, B., James, J. Yoshida, M. & Scremin, G. (2011). The effect of associated group identities on team identity. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 606-621.
Kilduff, G. J. (2014). Driven to win: Rivalry, motivation, and performance. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 944-952.
Kilduff, G. J., Galinsky, A. D., Gallo, E., & Reade, J. J. (2016). Whatever it takes to win: Rivalry increases unethical behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 59(5), 1508-1534. doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0545
Tyler, B. D., & Cobbs, J. (2017). All rivals are not equal: Clarifying misrepresentations and discerning three core properties of rivalry. Journal of Sport Management, 31(1), 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2015-0371
Tyler, B. D., Morehead, C. A., Cobbs, J., & DeSchriver, D. (2017). What is rivalry? Old and new approaches to specifying rivalry in demand estimations of spectator sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 26(4), 204-222.
Wann, D. L., & Dolan, T. J. (1994). Spectators’ evaluations of rival and fellow fans. The Psychological Record, 44(3), 351-358.
Wann, D. L., Havard, C. T., Grieve, F. G., Lanter, J. R., Partridge, J. A., & Zapalac, R. K. (2016). Investigating sport rivals: Number, evaluations, and relationship with team identification. Journal of Fandom Studies, 4
Wann, D. L., Haynes, G., McLean, B., & Pullen, P. (2003). Sport team identification and willingness to consider anonymous acts of hostile aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 406-413. doi: 10.1002/ab.10046
Objective of the Book
With a strong understanding of what causes and influences rivalry, and how it impacts sport fans, Understanding Rivalry and Its Influence on Sport Fans seeks to answer additional questions regarding the phenomenon while presenting new areas of research that can help guide inquiry into the subject. With research into sport rivalry growing at a rapid rate, the goal of the edited text is to encourage current and future academics to engage in the area of study. We seek high- quality original research and academic commentary chapters that will reach this end.
An important part of the text will be to encourage future work in the area of study. Therefore, contributors are expected to identify new avenues of inquiry to assist current and future researchers to better inform readers about the rivalry phenomenon.
The text will be used by current and future academics researching the rivalry phenomenon, in addition to students taking classes regarding fan behavior and/or rivalry in various disciplines, e.g., psychology, sociology, political science, sport and entertainment, consumer behavior and marketing. Below are some recommended topics to be included in the text.
Recommended topics include, but are not limited to, the following
- Antecedents and/or outcomes of rivalry
- How rivalry influences fan behavior
- Marketing, promotion, and sponsorship of rivalry
- Relationships between rival groups
- Rivalry in team and individual sport
- Rivalry in the United States and abroad
- Experimental research in sport
- Further understanding of schadenfreude and GORFing in sport
- Qualitative research into sport rivalry and fan behavior
- Commentaries and literature reviews regarding sport rivalry with a focus on future research
Researchers and practitioners are invited to submit on or before April 15, 2018, a chapter proposal of 1,000 to 2,000 words clearly explaining the topic and content of his or her proposed chapter, with a temporary title (and an author brief bio). A chapter is normally around 10,000 (9,000 – 11,000) words in length, including tables and references. Authors will be notified by May 15, 2018 about the status of their proposals and sent chapter guidelines. Full chapters are expected to be submitted by August 15, 2018, and all interested authors must consult the guidelines for manuscript submissions at http://www.igi-global.com/publish/contributor- resources/before-you-write/ prior to submission. All submitted chapters will be reviews on a double-blind review basis. Contributors may also be requested to serve as reviewers for this project.
Note: There are no submission or acceptance fees for manuscripts submitted to this book publication, Understanding Rivalry and Its Influence on Sport Fans. All manuscripts are accepted based on a double-blind peer review editorial process.
To ensure the quality of the book and the publication schedule, all contributors should understand:
- A submission should be your original work and it should not be a work that has been published, under publication consideration or going to be published by other outlets.
- All submissions should strictly follow the deadlines specified above.
- For contributors whose native language is not English, you may have a copy editor to improve the English writing before the final submission.
All proposals should be submitted through the E-Editorial DiscoveryTM online submission manager. Please use the link provided (LINK). Full chapters can be submitted through the following direct link. (LINK)
About the Editor
Cody T. Havard, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Sport Commerce and the Coordinator of Research in the Kemmons Wilson School of Hospitality and Resort Management at The University of Memphis. He is currently the Director of the Bureau of Sport and Leisure Commerce at The University of Memphis. Dr. Havard researches the rivalry phenomenon in sport, and developed the first scale to measure fan perceptions of rival teams, the Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale. He also developed the phenomenon Glory Out of Reflected Failure and validated a scale to measure the fan outcome. He is the founder and managing editor of www.sportrivalry.com, which provides historical and current research on rivalry in sport. Dr. Havard was named the 2015 Emerging Scholar in Sports Marketing by the Sport and Special Event SIG of the American Marketing Association. He organizes and hosts the online Forum on Sport Rivalry that features US and global academics researching the rivalry phenomenon. Dr.
Havard has published more than 30 articles in journals such as Sport Management Review, Journal of Sport Management, Sport Marketing Quarterly, and Journal of Sport Behavior, and his work has been featured in numerous outlets such as the Wall Street Journal and two books.
He serves as Co-Editor for the Journal of Amateur Sport and is on the editorial board for the Journal of Applied Sport Management and Sport Marketing Quarterly. He has worked with organizations such as the United States Olympic Committee, United States Tennis Section – Texas Section, FedEx St. Jude Classic, and the National Association of Collegiate Marketing Administrators.
This book is scheduled to be published by IGI Global (formerly Idea Group Inc.), and international academic publisher of the “Information Science Reference” (formerly Idea Group Reference), “Medical Information Science Reference”, “Business Science Reference”, and “Engineering Science Reference” imprints. IGI Global specialized in publishing reference books, scholarly journals, and electronic databases featuring academic research on a variety of innovative topic areas including, but not limited to, education, social science, medicine and healthcare, business and management, information science and technology, engineering, public administration, library and information science, media and communication studies, and environmental science. For additional information regarding the publisher, please visit www.igi- global.com. This publication is anticipated to be released in 2019.
Important Dates (please send a request to the editor if you need an extension time of submission)
April 15, 2018: Proposal Submission Deadline
May 15, 2018: Notification of Acceptance
August 15, 2018: Full Chapter Submission
October 15, 2018: Review Results Returned
November 15, 2018: Revised Chapter Submission
November 30, 2018: Final Acceptance Notification
December 15, 2018: Final Chapter Submission (after final minor revision)
Inquiries can be forwarded to
Cody T. Havard, Ph.D.
The University of Memphis
Editor’s Contact Information: firstname.lastname@example.org