STADION. International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 46, 2022, Issue 2


A Short History of (Eretz) Israel’s Way into the International Olympic Movement
Amichai Alperovich and Robin Streppelhoff
pp. 173–194

As the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has always followed its own sporting geography differing from political geography, it thereby takes a twofold approach to the states of the world. On the one hand, it recognizes National Olympic Committees (NOCs) which are the only eligible entities to nominate athletes to the Olympic Games. The NOCs are in most cases representatives of internationally recognized states even though they have to be independent from the government according to IOC regulations. On the other hand, the personal members of the IOC represent the IOC in their respective countries. With the example of Mandatory Palestine and, later on, Israel, this paper illustrates in the first part the difficulties organized sport faced in a contested political state in order to get a National Olympic Committee formed and recognized by the IOC. The British Mandate and the (sport) political power struggles within Mandatory Palestine call for a close look at the sources in order to get a clear picture of how the regional NOC came into force. Some books and articles have at least dealt with this topic but some historical works seem to overlook each other due to language barriers. The second part of this paper gives an insight into the quest of Israelis for personal IOC membership. In the cases shown it becomes clear that dealing with IOC membership is also dealing with politics. – Keywords: Germany; International Olympic Committee; Israel; National Olympic Committee; Mandatory Palestine; Membership; Sport Officials; (Sport) Politics.

„Major Taylor, der schwarze Star!“ Radrennsport in Deutschland um 1900 zwischen Fairness und Rassismus
Lars Amenda
pp. 196–223

Marshall Walter „Major“ Taylor (1878–1932) was a massively popular Black US American cyclist around 1900. In late 19th century United States he encountered severe racism in cycling and beyound despite (or because) his obvious sportive talent. In 1899 he won the world championship in sprinting the mile and became a professional track cyclist. In Europe, in France in particular, the cycling world impatiently looked forward for him particpating in races. In 1901 he finally travelled abroad for his first European tour.

The paper examines Major Taylor’s appearances in Germany, focusing on the years 1901 to 1903. His first ever start in Europe took place in Berlin-Friedenau on April 8, 1901. Major Taylor was regarded as a huge sensation in the highly popular track cycling around the turn of the 20th century. The influential German cycling newspaper Rad-Welt promoted him and welcomed him personally in their Berlin office after his first races. German rivals such as Willy Arend from Hannover faced the Black US American cyclist with highest respect. Nevertheless, a few riders and parts of the audience showed some racist behavior, including blackfacing before his first ever start. However, the Rad-Welt strongly condemmed unfair tactics against Major Taylor and generally called for fairness. Major Taylor successfully participated in a number of track races in German cities such as Berlin, Hannover, Cologne and others from 1901 to 1903 and remained a sport celebrity in Germany for many years. In the course of the 20th century his fame then waned both in the US and Germany. – Kewords: Major Taylor; Cycling; Track Cycling; Germany; German Empire; Race; Racism.

Turnen und Sport im Kaiserreich: Aufbruch in die Moderne?
Michael Krüger und Florian Wittmann
pp. 224–258

In the period surrounding the 150th  anniversary of the German Empire, thedebates among historians concerning its role and meaning for the process of modern society in Germany, have recently increased in intensity and sharpness. No matter how the interpretations were positioned between the gloomy shadow of the Pickelhaube (spiked German military helmets) and the radiant birth of modernity, physical exercise and physical culture remained unconsidered. This is surprising, since gymnastics and sports had grown into a mass movement throughout Europe since 1900 at the latest. Accordingly, this essay expands the current discussion on modernity of the German Empire from the specific perspective of sport history. The three areas of (gymnastics) instruction, club (Verein) and Olympic movement are used to discuss the extent to which physical education and physical culture became part of the developing mass society during the period of the Empire. They marked a “transition into modernity”, according to Hedwig Richter. What potential for the development of modern civil societies, including structures of participation, liberality, and democracy, did physical exercises – gymnastics, games and sports – contribute to the development of the German Empire from the 19th century until its termination after World War I? This may well be the leadingquestion and indeed challenge of the paper. – Keywords: German Empire; Sports; Gymnastics; Physical Education; Club Movement; Olympic Movement; Mass Culture.

(Shutterstock/Roberto Lusso)

Besucher aus der DDR bei den Olympischen Spielen 1972 in München
Karsten Lippmann
pp. 259–287

Despite the possibility to watch the Olympic Games on TV, millions of people want to attend the Games live on site. Experience shows that this desire increases when the Games are held within the vicinity of where you reside. This was also the case in 1972 in Munich. However, the inner German division led to a particular situation: People in the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR) often only lived a few hundred kilometres from the venue of the Games. They spoke the language of the hosts, and many loved sports. The hosts repeatedly indicated how welcome the guests were, particularly those from the “other Germany”. Yet, here was a substantial political issue: Germany had been separated since 1949, and the division was cemented in 1961. The GDR citizens were hardly able to enter the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD). The GDR’s ruling party (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED) opted for dissociation, which means that, according to their doctrine, there should be “no special relationships”. – Since the beginning of the New Eastern Policy (Neue Ostpolitik) in Bonn, the relationships should not be inferior either. Thus, the GDR was, so to speak, compelled to send tourists to the Munich Games, although the GDR leaders enormously struggled with that decision. The study describes the process leading to two groups of 1,000 GDR citizens being hand-picked and representing their state at the Games. Furthermore, it depicts the misunderstandings between the two sides during the negotiations and how the delegation was prepared and monitored. It also describes the objectives of both sides connected to the sending and receiving of the visitors. In all of that, including the haggling over a few dozen tickets for a volleyball match, it becomes apparent that not only the Olympic competitions can be of extreme political importance but also Olympic tourism. – Keywords: Federal Republic of Germany (FRG); German Democratic Republic (GDR); Munich Olympics 1972; Cold War; Politics in Sport; Sports Spectators; Sports Media.


Jim O’Brien, Russell Holden und Xavier Ginesta, Hrsg., Sport, Globalisation and Identity: New Perspectives on Regions and Nations, London und New York: Routledge, 2021 (Christian Koller)
Jürgen Kalwa, Der Stoff, aus dem die Helden sind: 33 Sportreportagen, Essays und Interviews, Hildesheim: Arete, 2022 (Sven Güldenpfennig)
Angelika Nollert, Hrsg., Kultobjekt – Designobjekt – Fahrrad | Cult Object – Design Object – Bicycle, Köln: Walther König, 2022 (Sven Güldenpfennig)
Michael Stellwag, Rudi Ball: Der vergessene deutsch-jüdische Eishockeystar, Hildesheim: arete, 2022 (Volker Kluge)
Bernd Siegler, Heulen mit den Wölfen: Der 1. FC Nürnberg und der Ausschluss seiner jüdischen Mitglieder, Fürth: starfruit publications, 2022 (Markwart Herzog)
Walter M. Iber, Christoph Hofer, Harald Knoll und Reinhard Lux-Skalka, Hrsg., Stadt in Bewegung: Grazer Sportgeschichte, Graz: Sportamt der Stadt Graz, 2022 (Nils Havemann)

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