Invited session on ”Lifelong endurance training: maintenance of high cardiovascular and oxidative metabolic performance with aging”
Bengt Saltin was a pioneer in the field of exercise physiology. Beginning with his doctoral thesis ‘Aerobic work capacity and circulation at exercise in man’ in 1964, to the Dallas Bedrest Study, to his final experimental study highlighted in this Symposium, the oxygen transport system remained a key interest. This symposium will present physiological findings in a unique group of older adults who have maintained regular endurance training for ≥ 40 years. The talks will cover the oxygen cascade from the level of structural and functional dynamics of the trained heart, to central and regional limb circulatory responses to dynamic exercise, local vasodilator and autonomic neural control of limb blood flow, to muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial capacity. The collective talks will provide insights on structure-function relationships stemming from exercise training and a physiological basis for maintenance of high functional capacity throughout the lifespan.
The invited session [IS-BN06] Lifelong endurance training: maintenance of high cardiovascular and oxidative metabolic performance with aging will start 10:20 Saturday 27th June in Lecture room “High Live 2”.
Post by Robert Boushel,
The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences
Department of Physical Education, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
It is safe to say that everyone accepts obesity as a problem! Indeed worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980 and in 2014 there were 600 million adults who were obese worldwide. Obesity increases the risk of many diseases with, for example, many obese individuals suffering from metabolic conditions such as type 2 diabetes. While excess fat accumulation is clearly negative, in recent years the storage location of this fat has also been shown to be of considerable importance. When fat storage in the “usual” depots, which to a degree is perfectly healthy, is no longer possible fats spill over and are stored ectopically in organs such as liver, heart and skeletal muscle. This ectopic fat is now known to be implicit in the metabolic dysfunction of obesity, amongst other conditions. This invited session will focus on the accumulation of fat within skeletal muscle, its negative “lipotoxic” effects and strategies (such as exercise) to reduce the amount of fat within muscle.
This session will bring together researchers from the USA, Netherlands and France who have considerable expertise in this area.
The first speaker is Professor Patrick Schrauwen from Maastricht University who will tell us what skeletal muscle lipotoxicity is and what it does. In his talk Patrick will discuss the relationship between skeletal muscle fat accumulation and both insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. He will also introduce some new research showing that lipid droplet dynamics may play an important role in the negative effects of skeletal muscle fat accumulation.
After this we will have Professor Bret Goodpaster from Sandford Burnham Medical Research Institute who will tell us about the role of specific types of fat in this lipotoxic effect and how some of the beneficial effects of exercise may be due to changes in skeletal muscle fat storage.
The final speaker in this invited session is Dr Christelle Guillet from Université Clermont who will tell us about some fascinating new research from her lab which has shown that fat accumulation within skeletal muscle can have a negative effect on muscle protein synthesis and how this may contribute to the loss of muscle mass with age, termed sarcopenia.
The invited session [IS-PM13] Skeletal muscle lipotoxicity; Should we be interested? will start 16:20 Thursday 25th June in Lecture room “Kuben”.
Post by Dr Stuart Gray
Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
University od Aberdeen
For some time, researchers have tried to understand the meaning of sport and other forms of movement. This was certainly the case of Professor Lars-Magnus Engström, who devoted virtually his whole professional career to a longitudinal studie of 2000 Swedes who were born in 1953, in order to gain understanding of their motives and motivation for participating in sports and other movement activities. Professor Engström started the study in 1968 and the last time the informants were contacted was in 2006, thirty-eight years later. Inspired by the French cultural sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, Engström developed a theoretical framework based on the concept logic of practice in order to understand why some people develop a taste for being physically active and, importantly, in what forms of practice they participate.
In this session, researchers from the humanities and the social sciences will contribute to a deep and nuanced understanding of logics of sport practices. The first speaker, Professor Angela Schneider, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, will give a philosophical account of the meaning of sport in contemporary society, in particular put in relation to ethical issues. More specifically, the question of whether the ethics of sport is tied to the logic of the practice of sports will be addressed.
The second speaker, Professor Håkan Larsson, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, will outline his theory of the logic of sports practices based on the intersection between Pierre Bourdieu’s cultural sociological ‘toolbox’ and Lars-Magnus Engström’s insights from his 38-year follow-up study. This approach suggests that rather than projecting rational objectives, such as health, education or sport performance, to movement activities, the activities must be understood on the basis of the practical logic of the activities themselves as they unfold over time.
The third and last speaker, Professor Jim Parry, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, will examine the logic of competitive sports from the perspective of analytical philosophy. He will utilise the techniques of conceptual analysis, suggesting logically necessary conditions for the use of the word “sport”, and he will try to show how the resulting criteria can act both as a demarcation device (between sport and non-sporting activities), and as a source of value prescriptions for sporting practice.
The invited session [IS-SH07] The logics of practice of sports – outline of a theory will start 10:20 Saturday 27th June in Lecture room “Live 2”.
Post by Professor Håkan Larsson
The Swedish School of Sport and Health Science
This week we at ECSS Malmö were invited for a guided tour of Malmö Live where we, among other things, got to see the great Concert Hall and lecture room “Kuben” (the cube). The is building open to the public already but technicians are still working on the final details.
Together with the Presidents of the ECSS Malmö 2015 Congress, Aage Radmann and Susanna Hedenborg, we were guided by the staff of Malmö Live and we went through the basics of the logistics during the Congress.
The first room we entered was “Kuben” that can hold up to 350 seated people or 500 standing. In this lecture room we will have some of the invited sessions, some oral presentation, as well as some mini oral presentation. The room has incredible acoustics, which can be controlled depending on what kind of performance that takes place. The idea in the future is that Malmö Live, in this room, will present concerts, shows or, as during the congress, various lectures.
The second room we entered was The Concert Hall, which is a very beautiful venue with seating for 1,600 people. We were amazed over the fantastic acoustics and the temple of vast dimension. In this great hall ECSS Malmö 2015 will have the opening and closing ceremonys, and with a stage area on 274 square-meter we look forward to show you spectacular performances.
We would like to thank Malmö Live for a enjoyable guided tour and we look forward to a delightful congress.
Following the dominance of altitude acclimatised athletes during the 1968 Olympic Games held in Mexico City, altitude (hypoxic) training has become very popular among individual endurance athletes and almost all medal winner of the last Olympic Games in any endurance sport used altitude or hypoxic training in their preparation. In more recent times, media reports have also provided us with coverage of several high-profile clubs in non-endurance sports undertaking training camps at altitude in an attempt to gain a competitive edge. Thanks to the participation of leaders in the field of altitude training, the purpose of this symposium sponsored by Aspetar is to update our current knowledge about «Recent developments in altitude and hypoxic training».
After an introductory note by session chairs Dr. Olivier Girard (Lausanne University) and Dr. Yorck Olaf Schumacher (Aspetar), the first talk will be given by Dr. Paul Robach from the École Nationale des Sports de Montagne, Chamonix, France. Altitude training embraces various methods including the “live high–train high”, “live high–train low” and “live low–train high”. His critical review of these interventions will make the case that living and/or training in a natural hypoxic environment might be the best option for elite endurance athletes, both with respect to adaptive responses and motivational aspects.
The second speaker, Dr. Chris Gore who is Head of physiology at the Australian Institute of Sport, will be given the opportunity to put the case based on 20 years of AIS research. His intervention will try to answer some of the important practical questions of “how high and how long is required to increase hemoglobin mass”, “what is the minimum time-effective dose?”, “how long do the effects last?”, and “will altitude training work for me?”. The innovative aspects of this talk will be lowering the boundaries of a beneficial altitude camp in terms of altitude dose. As critically interpreting changes in haemoglobin mass involves reducing sources of error associated with the technique he will also review data to quantify the imprecision of haemoglobin mass and how to minimise it.
The third speaker is Dr. Grégoire Millet from Lausanne University, Switzerland. The main purpose of his talk will be to challenge two points: (1) that normobaric and hypobaric hypoxia can be used interchangeably, both in medicine and in sport, and (2) that altitude training benefits are limited to hemoglobin mass and to aerobic sports. Noteworthy, the potential for new hypoxic methods, the so-called “repeated sprint training in hypoxia” and the “live high–train low and high”, leading to improved repeated-sprint ability in team-sport players will be presented. This will lead to the introduction of an updated panorama of the different hypoxic methods currently available for a range of athletes engaged in endurance and team–sport disciplines.
Welcome to attend this symposium, which will undoubtedly generate passionate debates around this growing field!
The invited session [IS-PM15] Recent developments in altitude and hypoxic training sponsored by Aspetar will start 10:20 Saturday 27th June in Lecture room “High Live 3”.
Tendon and other force bearing tissues play an important role in human functions in everyday life and sports. While much is known about muscle adaptation in response to acute and habitual loading, tendon adaptations are still poorly understood. In this symposium you will be updated with what is actually known on tendon adaptation to loading, training, aging and disuse. Therefore, the target audience includes sports coaches, physiotherapists, clinicians, gerontologists and researchers of basic sciences.
After an introductory note by session chair, professor Taija Finni, professor Jens Bojsen-Møller from the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences discusses how acute tendon responses with time translates into changes in tendon dimension and mechanical properties. He elaborates the delicate mechanisms behind the adaptations from increased blood flow and glucose uptake to collagen synthesis.
The second speaker professor Olivier Seynnes from the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences clarifies the relationship between tendon mechanical properties and daily stress levels. Tendon long-term adaptations include changes in size, morphology and mechanical properties where studies based on animal specimen and on in vivo testing of human tendons are not always in agreement.
Long term adaptations as a result of aging and disuse will be the topic of Lauri Stenroth from the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. His presentation will concisely review the current literature to highlight similarities and differences between the effects of aging and disuse. Finally, functional consequences of the tendon adaptations with aging and disuse will be discussed.
The invited session [IS-BN06] Tendon Adaption will start 15:00 Wednesday 24th June in Lecture room “Live 1”.
Post by Taija Finni
Dept. of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä
Already in the beginning of the last century it was revealed that carbohydrate is an important fuel during exercise. Later in the late 1960s, pioneering muscle biopsy studies demonstrated that muscle glycogen contents is associated with exhaustion and that glycogen changes with exercise, recovery and training. This has later been followed by compelling research in glucose uptake regulation, and more mechanistic studies on the role of glycogen localization in cell functions and muscle performance. Thus, the importance of skeletal muscle glycogen as a fuel during exercise, and fundamental aspects of glycogen regulation is well documented. However, little is known about the precise mechanism that relates skeletal muscle glycogen to impaired muscle function and cell signaling. Further, fundamental questions remains unsolved, as how glycogen storage is regulated, fiber type differences in glycogen regulation and effects of training and disuse on the glycogen localization.
Recently, new techniques and ideas have evolved and shed novel light on the role of glycogen in cell function, especially in excitable tissue as skeletal muscle. In the symposium on “Role of glycogen in skeletal muscle regulation and function”, Saturday 27th, we will exhibit and discuss recent data that addresses these long established questions. The presentations points to a diverse effects of different glycogen localizations on muscle function, and fiber type differences in key elements in the glycogen regulation.
Chair as well as first speaker in this invited session is Dr. Niels Ørtenblad, Associate professor and head of research unit, Dept. of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. He will during the talk provide experimental evidence in favor of a direct role of decreased glycogen, localized within the myofibrils, for the reduction in SR Ca2+ release during fatigue. This has been revealed at the level from isolated SR vesicles from human muscle after exercise and in single intact and mechanically skinned muscle fibres.
The second speaker, Dr. Robin Murphy, Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, who is leading in single fibre western blotting and has a long research merit in glycogen associated protein localization and absolute content. In this talk, she will present and discuss compelling evidence for a distinct fibre type dependent regulation of glycogen related proteins in response to acute exercise in humans.
The third speaker, Dr. Clara Prats, Copenhagen University, will on the base of studies on the complexity and the dynamics of intracellular compartments, discuss the intracellular compartmentalization as a regulator of glycogen metabolism. Here, she will review and summarize what it is known and what is still lacking to reach full understanding of the complexity of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signaling.
The symposia topic and the three talks will be of interest both for a broader physiological audience, as well as for the many researchers and members of the ECSS with specific interest in metabolism and muscle function.
The invited session [IS-PM05] Role of glycogen in skeletal muscle regulation and function will start 10:20 Saturday 27th June in Lecture room: “High Live 1”
Post by Niels Ørtenblad
While visiting the ECSS congress in Malmö, you must not forget to participate in our Social and Physical Program. The program includes a series of social and physical activities where we hope you will find something of interest. We offer activities as running together with “Malmo Guerrilla Runners”, a guided boat trip along the canals of Malmö, a fun party in the People’s Park and much more.
Starting from 9 am on the 24th till the late hours of the 27th we will offer you different happenings that will give you a chance do meet up with other visitors to socialize and do fun physical activities together.
More information on each activity will be posted here on the blog, do not miss it, some of our activities have a limited number of participants!
Are you planning to stay longer? Don’t miss out on our available tours. Find more info here.